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Mitochondria PDF

The mitochondrion (or mitochondria in its plural form) is a specialized organelle found in most eukaryotic cells (cells that contain a nucleus), which are often referred to as a cell's energy power plant. Mitochondria are essential for human existence, and thus involved in numerous cell processe Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell. In all eu-karyotes that do not depend on photosynthesis, the mitochondria are the main source of adenosine triphos-phate (ATP), the energy-rich compound that drives fun-damental cell functions. These functions include force generation (for example, in muscle contraction and cel Mitochondria Structure and Roles The number of mitochondria per cell is energy/function dependent; i.e., those cells that require and expend the most energy contain the highest number of mitochondria. Most cells have between a few hundred to over 20,000 mitochondria; they are concen-trated most heavily in cells of the heart, brain

What Is Mitochondria (Structure, Diagram & Function

  1. Mitochondrial diseases are one of the most common inborn errors of metabolism, with a conservative estimated prevalence of approximately 1:5,000. Primary mitochondrial diseases are de!ned as disorders impacting the structure or function of the mitochondria as a result of either nuclear DNA (nDNA) or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations.
  2. Protocol 1 Isolation of Mitochondria from Tissue Culture Cells David A. Clayton1 and Gerald S. Shadel2,3,4 1JaneliaFarmResearchCampus,HowardHughesMedicalInstitute,Ashburn,Virginia20147-2408;2Department ofPathology,YaleUniversitySchoolofMedicine,NewHaven,Connecticut06520-8023;3DepartmentofGenetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-802
  3. Mitochondrial disease (MD) is recognized as an important cause of a wide range of physiologic changes that affect the perioperative period.1-3 Organ systems with high metabolic requirements are uniquely dependent on the energy delivered by mitochondria, and therefore logically should have the low-est threshold for displaying symptoms of MD
  4. Mitochondria's primary function is to produce energy through the process of oxidative phosphorylation. Besides this, it is responsible for regulating the metabolic activity of the cell. It also promotes cell multiplication and cell growth. Mitochondria also detox ammonia in the liver cells
  5. 2. Mitochondria (singular, mitochondrion) - are typically tubular or rod-shaped organelles found in the cytoplasm of most cells and produces enzymes for the metabolic conversion of food to energy. Mitochondria are responsible for converting nutrients into the energy-yielding molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to fuel the cells activities
  6. Mitochondria have two membranes, an outer membrane and an inner membrane. These membranes are made of phospholipid layers, just like the cell's outer membrane. The outer membrane covers the surface of the mitochondrion, while the inner membrane is located within and has many folds called cristae.The folds increase surface area of the membrane, which is important because the inner membrane.

Mitochondria - SlideShar

2. INTRODUCTION Mitochondria is a double membrane bound organelle found in cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Mito - thread, chondrion - granule like. First observed by Richard Altman ( 1894) Term mitochondria was coined by Carl Benda (1898) They produce enzymes for the metabolic conversion of Richard Altman Carl Benda. 3 Mitochondria are organelles that are present in every cell of the body and produce 90%-95% of the body's total energy. Mitochondrial respiration produces the energy-carrier adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which drives all the necessary chemical reactions in the body Mitochondria / drug effects Mitochondria / metabolism* Oxidative Phosphorylation Oxygen Consumptio

Page 3 of 8 INTRODUCTION FOCUS ¡ Mitochondria kit enables the fast and easy isolation of enriched mitochondrial fractions from animal cells and tissues. The majority of the isolated mitochondria obtained from this kit contain intact inner and outer membranes Mitochondria: More Than Just a Powerhouse. Pioneering biochemical studies have long forged the concept that the mitochondria are the 'energy powerhouse of the cell'. These studies, combined with the unique evolutionary origin of the mitochondria, led the way to decades of research focusing on the organelle as an essential, yet independent. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell because they burn or break the chemical bonds of glucose to release energy to do work in a cell. Remember that this energy originally came from the sun and was stored in chemical bonds by plants during photosynthesis. Glucose and other carbohydrates made by plants during photosynthesis are broke Mitochondrial disorders are defined as diseases that have a defect in mitochondrial metabolism. The phosphorylation (OXPHOS). OXPHOS is the main source for the formation of ATP. The mitochondrion is subclass of these disorders, mitochondrial myopathies, is thought to be caused by OXPHOS defects The first article reported that deletions in the extra-nuclear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) could be associated with a characteristic muscle pathology involving ragged red muscle fibers and abnormal mitochondria, designated mitochondrial myopathy (H olt et al. 1988). Mitochondrial DNA deletions and mitochondrial myopathy have subsequently been associated with the spontaneously occurring chronic external progressive ophthalmopelgia

Mitochondrium - Wikiwand

Mitochondria - Definition, Function & Structure Biology

1948-1951 Mitochondria contain the enzymes of the citric acid KennedyandLehninger 74 cycle, fattyacid oxidation, andoxidative phosphoryl- Schneider and Potter 75 ation Green 76 Lehninger 77 1950-1955 The enzymic complement of mitochondria as revealed Schneider and Hogeboom 73 bytissue-fractionation studies HogeboomandSchneider 105 de Duveet al. Abstract. Through their many and varied metabolic functions, mitochondria power life. Paradoxically, mitochondria also have a central role in apoptotic cell death. Upon induction of mitochondrial apoptosis, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) usually commits a cell to die. Apoptotic signalling downstream of MOMP involves cytochrome.

Mitochondria produce more than 90% of our cellular energy by ox-phos [33]. Energy production is the result of two closely coordinated metabolic processes - the tricar-boxylic acid (TCA) cycle, also known as the Krebs or citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain (ETC). Th Mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the physical embodiment of the mitochondrial genome, the sum total of genetic information encoded in the mitochondrion. From: Encyclopedia of Genetics, 2001. Download as PDF understanding of mitochondrial struc-ture and function. The original formu-lation of the chemiosmotic hypothesis was influenced heavily by the appear-ance of mitochondria in electron mi-crographs as membrane-bounded organ-elles. Chemiosmosis involves rapid diffusion of metabolites and ions within and between the mitochondrial subcom-partments the number of mitochondria and plastids in a cell • In mammalian cells mitochondrial DNA makes up 1% of the total cellular DNA, but proportion higher in some plants or amphibian eggs (99%) • Live cell images of mitochondria (mitotracker, membrane potential sensitive dyes [how does this work?]

This volume inspires. It certainly will be much appreciated by cell biologists all over the world. Quarterly Review of Biology, March 2009. This book is the eagerly awaited second edition of the best-selling Mitochondria, a book widely acknowledged as the first modern, truly comprehensive authored work on the important, scientifically fundamental topic of the cellular organelles known as. MITOCHONDRIAL DISORDERS M.E.J. ANESTH 21 (2), 2011 235 235 MITOCHONDRIAL DISORDERS - A Review of Anesthetic Considerations - HERODOTOS ELLINAS AND ELIZABETH A.M. FROST Introduction Mitochondrial disorders are defined as diseases that have a defect in mitochondrial metabolism INTRODUCTION. Mitochondria are an important source of ROS (reactive oxygen species) within most mammalian cells [1-8].This ROS production contributes to mitochondrial damage in a range of pathologies and is also important in redox signalling from the organelle to the rest of the cell [3,9].Consequently, knowledge of how mitochondria produce ROS is vital to understand a range of currently. mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic muscle is a consequence of lower mitochondrial content and not lower intrinsic mitochondrial function [25,26]. Other aspects of respiratory function have also been a subject of some studies. Rabol et al. [27] show a decreased respiratory control ratio (RCR), indicating lower couplin

Mitochondria are double membrane-bound cell organelles with a typical size of 0.75-3 μm². They are found in most mammalian cells, with notable exceptions including mature erythrocytes. Classically referred to as the 'powerhouse of the cell', they are the site of the majority of ATP synthesis and are therefore exceptionally important to function both microscopically and macroscopically.In. Mitochondria is one of the vital cell organelles present inside the cell. An eukaryotic cell has at least one or more number of mitochondria depending on the requirement. But, those cells with high physiological activity posses a higher number of mitochondria.For example muscle cells and nerve cells have large number of them per cell The main function of mitochondria is to produce energy for the cell. Cells use a special molecule for energy called ATP. ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate. The ATP for the cell is made within the mitochondria. You can think of the mitochondria as the energy factory or power plant of the cell. Respiration Introduction. Primary mitochondrial disorders (PMDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by impaired mitochondrial structure or function due to mutations in nuclear or mitochondrial DNA [].PMDs are the most common inborn errors of metabolism and have a prevalence of approximately 1 in 5,000 individuals [1,2].Diagnosis, treatment, and day-to- day management of these diseases. Experimental Physiology Exp Physiol 101.1 (2016) pp 17-22 17 SymposiumSymposium ReportReport Adaptations of skeletal muscle mitochondria to exercise training Carsten Lundby1 and Robert A. Jacobs1,2,3 1Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, Institute of Physiology, University of Z ¨urich, Zurich, Switzerland 2Health and Physical Education, School of Teaching and Learning, Western.

Mitochondria are a part of eukaryotic cells. The main job of mitochondria is to perform cellular respiration. This means it takes in nutrients from the cell, breaks it down, and turns it into energy. This energy is then in turn used by the cell to carry out various functions. Each cell contains a different number of mitochondria Mitochondrial dysfunction (faulty mitochondria that aren [t working properly) is an attractive explanation for the cause and disease pathology of ME/CFS, as it can be used to explain many of the symptoms experienced. Given that ME/CFS is primarily an energy disorder, it would make sense tha Mitochondrial organization is a conserved feature. a, mtDNA in a human fibroblast is packaged within nucleoids (green) distributed within tubular mitochondria (red) around the nucleus (blue).Scale. mitochondrial respiration is suppressed by antimycin, an in-hibitor of complex III. O.− 2 produced at this site appears on both sides of the IMM [8]. Ubiquinone, a component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, linking Complex I with III, and II with III, is regarded as a major player in the forma-tion of O.− 2 by Complex III [9]. The. 5. Use Fat For Fuel. Mitochondria can use fatty acids or carbohydrates to create the ATP our cells need for energy. However the ATP creation process from fat is more efficient and creates less free radicals as a by product. This is a crucial consideration when looking at longevity and our overall lifecycle

To label mitochondria, cells are simply incubated with MitoTracker® probes, which passively diffuse across the plasma membrane and accumulate in active mitochondria. Once their mitochondria are labeled, the cells can be treated with an aldehyde-based fixative for samples that need fixation to allow further processing of the sample Mitochondrial respiration is the set of metabolic reactions and processes requiring oxygen that takes place in mitochondria to convert the energy stored in macronutrients to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the universal energy donor in the cell 10. If intact mitochondria are desired, resuspend the pellet from Step 8 in 0.1 ml 1X PBS (Not provided). These are the intact mitochondria. If mitochondrial protein lysate is desired, resuspend the pellet from Step 8 with 100 µl of the Mitochondrial Extraction Buffer Mix containing DTT and protease inhibitors (a

Mitochondria similarly impart considerable flexibility for tumor cell growth and survival in otherwise harsh environments, such as during nutrient depletion, hypoxia, and cancer treatments, and are therefore key players in tumorigenesis. There is no simple canon for the role of mitochondria in cancer development the progressive reduction in mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activity, which further aggravates oxida-tive stress and impairs energy output.5-7 Before consid-ering mitochondrial adaptations and dysfunctions in NAFDL, we will recall key features of lipid and carbo-hydrate homeostasis and the role of mitochondria in FAO and energy production Mitochondria - Turning on the Powerhouse Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell. They are organelles that act like a digestive system which takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy rich molecules for the cell. The biochemical processes of the cell are known as cellular respiration.Many of the reactions involved in cellular respiration happen in the mitochondria

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Mitochondria ppt - SlideShar

Role of mitochondria, oxidative stress and the response to

Skeletal muscle fitness and plasticity is an important determinant of human health and disease. Mitochondria are essential for maintaining skeletal muscle energy homeostasis by adaptive re. Lifestyle Changes That May Improve Mitochondrial Function 1) Intermittent Fasting. Restricting calories and fasting intermittently, such as for fixed hours of the day, decreases energy levels in the body.To compensate, levels of NAD+ increase, which increases the ability of the mitochondria to produce ATP. This results in a subsequent rise in ATP levels due to improved mitochondrial function The mitochondrial membrane potential is a key indicator of mitochondria activity levels. A number of fluorescent dyes are available that accumulate in mitochondria due to the membrane potential. Most popular Abcam mitochondrial membrane dye assay. Ex/Em 549/575 nm Mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of the Guizhou odorous frog: limited population genetic structure and evidence for recent population size expansion. Shize Li, Gang Wei, Jing Liu & Houqiang Xu. Pages: 1592-1596. Published online: 04 May 2021 View Mitochondrion.pdf from ASIA 360 at University of British Columbia. 05/06/2021 Mitochondrion - Wikipedia Mitochondrion A mitochondrion (/ˌmaɪtəˈkɒndrɪən/,[1] plural mitochondria) is

Tools in Biology - BIOLOGY4ISC

The biologic clock: the mitochondria

Download Mitochondrial Dna And Diseases book PDF, Read Online Mitochondrial Dna And Diseases Book PDF. Ebook available in PDF, tuebl, mobi, ePub formar. Click Download book and find your favorite books in the online databases. Register to access unlimited books for 30 day trial, fast download and ads free Mitochondrial disease is a group of disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction.Mitochondria are the organelles that generate energy for the cell and are found in every cell of the human body except red blood cells.They convert the energy of food molecules into the ATP that powers most cell functions.. Mitochondrial diseases take on unique characteristics both because of the way the diseases. Mitochondrial DNA is the small circular chromosome found inside mitochondria. The mitochondria are organelles found in cells that are the sites of energy production. The mitochondria, and thus mitochondrial DNA, are passed from mother to offspring

Our mitochondrial DNA accounts for a small portion of our total DNA. It contains just 37 of the 20,000 to 25,000 protein-coding genes in our body. But it is notably distinct from DNA in the nucleus Proline is made in the mitochondria, and thus a key function of NADPH in the mitochondria appears to be the synthesis of proline to sustain cellular protein synthesis. Science, abd5491, this issue p. 968. This is an article distributed under the terms of the Science Journals Default License

Cells | Free Full-Text | Functional Compartmentalization

This is a Transformative Journal. Mitochondrion is a definitive, high profile, peer-reviewed international research journal. The scope of Mitochondrion is broad, reporting on basic science of mitochondria from all organisms and from basic research to pathology and clinical aspects of mitochondrial diseases Mitochondrial genetic disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect the mitochondria (the structures in each cell of the body that are responsible for making energy). People with these conditions can present at any age with almost any affected body system; however, the brain, muscles, heart, liver, nerves, eyes, ears and kidneys are the organs and tissues most commonly affected Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use.Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA (known as mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). In some cases, inherited changes in mitochondrial DNA can cause problems with growth, development, and function of the body's. mitochondria. The traditional methods of either isolating mitochondria from cells or using substrate-supplemented media with intact cells have several disadvantages. Moreover, unlike detergent-based permeabilization methods such as digitonin or saponin, XF PMP is far less prone to cell lifting or mitochondrial outer membrane damage7

[PDF] Mitochondria: More Than Just a Powerhouse Semantic

Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Each cell contains hundreds to thousands of mitochondria, which are located in the fluid that surrounds the nucleus (the cytoplasm). Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the. Oxidative phosphorylation (UK / ɒ k ˈ s ɪ d. ə. t ɪ v /, US / ˈ ɑː k. s ɪ ˌ d eɪ. t ɪ v /) or electron transport-linked phosphorylation or terminal oxidation) is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing the chemical energy stored within the nutrients in order to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In eukaryotes, this takes place. Mitochondria have their own genome of about 16,500 bp that exists outside of the cell nucleus. Each contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs. They are present in large numbers in.

Mitochondria as Chi Genetic

The most robust statistical examination to date of our species' genetic links to mitochondrial Eve -- the maternal ancestor of all living humans -- confirms that she lived about 200,000 years ago The Qproteome Mitochondria Isolation Kit can be used with 5 x 10 6 to 2 x 10 7 cells. Depending on the cell line, the yield from a single fractionation procedure is 20-80 µg protein from 5 x 10 6 cells. Protein can be isolated from the mitochondria using, e.g. the QProteome Mammalian Protein Prep Kit, or home-made lysis buffers

from mitochondria gone awry, in more subtle but nonetheless insidi ous forms. Evidence suggests that malfunctioning mitochondria could explainAlzheimer's disease, Parkinson's, diabetes, cardiovascular dis ease, obesity, cancer and other consequences of aging. Given the organ elle's core function in the body, some think mitochondria might eve Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles that house . numerous chemical reactions that are essential to cellular metab-olism and mammalian physiology. 1-9. Importantly, the metabolic milieu of the mitochondrial matrix compartment is distinct from that of the rest of the cell because of the mitochondrial inner membrane Mitochondria are highly mobile and move within and between subcellular compartments involved in neuroplas-ticity (synaptic terminals, dendrites, cell body and the axon). By generating energy (ATP and NAD+), and regulating subcellular Ca2+ and redox homoeostasis, mitochondria may play important roles in controllin Mitochondrion is broad, reporting on basic science of mitochondria from all organisms and from basic research to pathology and clinical aspects of mitochondrial diseases. The journal welcomes original submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers

mitochondrial sub-compartments by specific import and sorting machineries (Wiedemann and Pfanner, 2017). The first inventory of human mitochondrial proteins, Mitocarta, was created just over ten years ago by mass spectrometric analysis of mitochondria isolated from different human tissue Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction, bioenergetic defects and dynamic imbalance are believed to play a critical role in tubular injury in DKD development, which has been confirmed by some investigations of patients and animal models [6, 9, 15, 16, 21]. Meanwhile, other novel mechanisms related to mitochondrial damage, such as metaboli Mitochondrial Ca2 imaging. The mitochondrial and cytosolic Ca2 compartments were visualized simultaneously by preloading cultures with the mitochondrion-specific Ca2 sensor Rhod-FF, AM (Invitro-gen). Culture dishes were incubated with Rhod-FF, AM (5 M, in stan-dard HBS) for 15 min on the day before experimentation to allow com of mitochondria with respect to oocyte maturation, fertilization and early embryo development. In addition, mitochondrial function and dysfunction has been the subject of various studies in ovarian ageing and metabolic stress models. However, the overall mitochondrial impact on female fertility is yet to be uncovered

Mitochondria. =. Mitochondria are membrane-bound cell organelles (mitochondrion, singular) that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell's biochemical reactions. Chemical energy produced by the mitochondria is stored in a small molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Mitochondria contain their own small chromosomes Parkinson's Disease Mitochondria: Key Organelle in Parkinson's Disease Guest Editors: Rubén Gómez-Sánchez, José M. Bravo-San Pedro, Rosa A. González-Polo, José M. Fuentes, and Matthew E. Geg An inflammatory response initiated by the NLRP3 inflammasome is triggered by a variety of situations of host 'danger', including infection and metabolic dysregulation. Previous studies suggested that NLRP3 inflammasome activity is negatively regulated by autophagy and positively regulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from an uncharacterized organelle mitochondrial superoxide production, which is benefi-cial for insulin secretion by pancreatic β cells, insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle and liver, and preven-tion of micro and macro- -vascular complications in diabetes [8]. Quality control of the mitochondria is critical for the maintenance of mitochondrial function, and dys

Mitochondrial encoded mitochondriopathies are inherited maternally, while nuclear encoded types are inherited with classical Mendelian inheritance (X-linked rescessive, autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant). The most severe inherited mitochondrial disorders, many of them lethal, become clinically apparent during infancy Mitochondria inhibited melanoma cell proliferation. (A) Mitochondria could enter cells. The mitochondria were labeled by Mitotracker Red CMXRos, and cytoskeletons and nucleus were respectively stained by FITC -phalloidin and Hoechst 33342. M -mito, mitochondria from male mice; F-mito, mitochondria from female mice. (B) International Journal of Molecular Sciences Review Natural Agents Targeting Mitochondria in Cancer Shalini Mani 1,y, Geeta Swargiary 1,y and Keshav K. Singh 2,* 1 Centre for Emerging Diseases, Department of Biotechnology, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector 62, Noida 201307, UP, India; shalini.mani@jiit.ac.in (S.M.); swargiarygeeta@gmail.com (G.S. mitochondrial membrane phospholipid.44 Oxidative damage to the cardiolipin and other membrane phospholipids in the inner mitochondrial membrane can result in increased proton and ion leakage back across the inner membrane into the mitochondrial matrix and partial loss of the electrochemical gradient. Cardiolipin is also an important component.

Mitochondria: Form, function, and diseas

Mitochondria undergo fission-fusion events that render these or-ganelles highly dynamic in cells. We report a relationship between mitochondrial form and cell cycle control at the G 1-S boundary. Mitochondria convert from isolated, fragmented elements into a hyperfused, giant network at G 1-S transition. The network is electri Mitochondrial disease ultimately reflects a defect of oxidative phosphorylation within a cell, but the pattern of Figure 1 Human mitochondria. Scanning fluorescence confocal micrograph of a cultured human myoblasts stained with the Mitotracker, which is a fluorescent potentiometric dye taken u The Mitochondria Isolation Kit, human enables isolation of intact, viable mitochondria from human cells or tissue in less than two hours. The kit's protocol is based on the renowned MACS® Technology that combines high yield with purity and integrity of the isolated mitochondria (figs. 2 and 3). Afte

Genes | Special Issue : Mitochondria and Aging

Review Article Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants: A Step towards Disease Treatment Qian Jiang ,1,2 Jie Yin ,1 Jiashun Chen,1 Xiaokang Ma,1 Miaomiao Wu,1 Gang Liu ,3 Kang Yao,1,4 Bie Tan ,1 and Yulong Yin1,4 1Animal Nutritional Genome and Germplasm Innovation Research Center, College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, Hunan 410128, Chin Mito Foundation - Hope for mitochondrial diseas mitochondria likely play fundamental roles in the pathogenesis of AD. It is believed that a healthy pool of mitochondria not only supports neuronal activity by providing enough energy supply and other related mitochondrial functions to neurons, but also guards neurons by minimizing mitochondrial related oxidative damage and mitochondrial genome is important to avoid false mapping of NUMT reads to the mitochondria. December 12, 2014 Diego Calderon Page 2 of 5. 7526, 8303, 9999, 10413, 12146, 12274, 13710, and 14734). See gure 2 for the ow diagram of data processing. Due to quality control concerns (low coverage), I re Exhibit G: Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Disruption of Electrophysiology Mitochondria are broadly vulnerable, in part because the integrity of their membranes is vital to their optimal functioning - including channels and electrical gradients, and their membranes can be damaged by free radicals which can be generated in myriad ways For example, researchers have calculated that mitochondrial Eve--the woman whose mtDNA was ancestral to that in all living people--lived 100,000 to 200,000 years ago in Africa. Using the new clock, she would be a mere 6000 years old

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